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208 Breeds, 422 Health Conditions  |  Find a Vet

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Canine Salmon Poisoning Disease

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Condition Overview

This is a severe rickettsial disease of dogs and wild canids (wild dogs) that requires the presence of several intermediate hosts including snails, flukes, fish, and mammals. Humans are not affected by this disease. The disease is limited to the Pacific Northwestern United States.

Symptoms

Illness begins with high fever, followed by hypothermia, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea (usually bloody), and generalized lymph node enlargement. These signs are similar to those of canine distemper and parvovirus.

Causes

Dogs acquire the infection when they eat raw freshwater or ocean salmon and related species containing encysted flukes that harbor rickettsiae.

A few days after a dog ingests contaminated fish, the larval fluke matures and attaches to the lining of the dog's intestines, where it inserts the rickettsial organism into the intestinal tissues. The incubation period is 5-21 days.

Diagnosis

A history of eating raw fish suggests a diagnosis of salmon poisoning. Diagnosis may include finding fluke ova in a fecal sample.

Treatment

Death usually occurs in 7-10 days in untreated dogs. The illness does however, respond well to intravenous tetracycline. Supportive treatment with IV fluids and blood transfusions for hemorrhagic diarrhea may be required.

Praziquantel and mebendazole eliminate intestinal flukes.

Prevention

Do not allow dogs to eat raw fish. Thoroughly cooking fish (ore freezing it for 24 hours) destroys encysted flukes and rickettsiae.

Support

Please contact your veterinarian if you suspect you or your pet may have this condition.

Show Sources & Contributors +

Sources

Dog Owners Home Veterinary Handbook

Publisher: Wiley Publishing, 2007

Website: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/

Authors: Debra M. Eldredge, Liisa D. Carlson, Delbert G. Carlson, James M. Giffen MD

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