Coughing is a reflex initiated by an irritation in the airway. Coughs are self-perpetuating. Coughing dries out the mucous membranes and irritates the breathing tubes - leading to further coughing.
The type of cough often suggests the diagnosis.
- A deep, dry, hacking cough made worse by exercise or excitement is characteristic of kennel cough.
- A moist, bubbling cough indicates fluid or phlegm in the lungs and suggests pneumonia.
- A high, weak, gagging cough followed by swallowing and licking the lips is characteristic of tonsillitis and sore throat.
- A spasm of prolonged coughing that occurs at night or while lying on the sternum suggests heart disease.
- A "goose-honk" cough in a toy breed dog indicates a collapsing trachea.
Coughs are caused by respiratory infections, congestive heart failure, chronic bronchitis, respiratory tract tumors, collapsing trachea, pressure from tight collars, and inhaled irritants such as grass seeds, fumes, and food particles.
The diagnostic workup of a dog with chronic cough includes a chest X-ray and transtracheal washings. Washings are cells obtained by flushing the trachea with saline solution. This can be done with a sterile tube passed down the trachea while the dog is sedated, or by direct penetration of the trachea through the skin of the neck using a needle and catheter. The washings are processed for cytology and bacterial culture.
Bronchoscopy is particularly useful in the investigation of chronic coughs and coughs with the production of mucus and blood. The procedure requires sedation or general anesthesia. A rigid or flexible endoscope is passed into the trachea and bronchi. This enables the veterinarian to see the interior of the respiratory tract. Biopsies can be taken with accuracy, and washings collected for examination and culture. Bronchoscopy is also the procedure of choice for removing bronchial foreign bodies.
Only minor coughs of brief duration should be treated at home. Coughs accompanied by labored breathing, a discharge from the eyes or nose, or the production of bloody sputum should be seen and treated by a veterinarian.
It is important to identify and correct any contributing factors. Eliminate any irritating atmospheric pollutants, such as cigarette smoke, aerosol insecticides, strong cleaners, house dust, and perfumes from the home environment.
Breaking the cough cycle is an important part of treating irritant coughs. A variety of children's cough medicines are available over the counter. Children's Robitussin is an effective cough medicine that contains an expectorant called guaifenesin. It does not suppress the cough reflex, but does liquefy mucus secretions so that they can be brought up more easily. Robitussin is safe to use for all coughs.
Robitussin-DM and Benylin Expectorant, also available over the counter, contain the cough suppressant dextromethorphan. When stronger cough suppressants are needed, preparations containing the narcotics hydrocodone bitartrate (Hyocodan) and butirphanol tartrate (Torbutrol, Torbugesic) are available by prescription from your veterinarian.
Cough suppressants should be used selectively and only for short periods of time. Although they decrease the frequency and severity of the cough, they do not treat the condition causing it. Overuse may delay diagnosis and treatment. Cough suppressants (but not expectorants) should be avoided in dogs with bacterial infections and when phlegm is being brought up or swallowed. In these cases, productive coughs are clearing unwanted material from the airway.
Dogs with a dry cough can be helped by keeping them in the bathroom while you shower and not using the fan. The added moisture may loosen secretions. Using a humidifier can also be helpful.
If the cough is not the result of a health condition, you may be able to reduce the frequency of coughs by:
- Move them to another room while vacuuming or dusting to reduce coughing in response to dust, pollen, and other irritants.
- Do not smoke in a room with dogs. While smoking is bad for you, it is even worse for your pet. Dogs can even develop emphysema from second hand smoke.
- Use a harness or head collar while walking to prevent throat irritations.
- Stressful situations can trigger cough attacks. Try to calm your dog when they go into a coughing attack.
Please contact your veterinarian if you have regarding the frequency or severity of your dogs cough.
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